Studies where C60 is delivered via a vegetable oil based solution.
Biological safety of LipoFullerene composed of squalane and fullerene-C60 upon mutagenesis, photocytotoxicity, and permeability into the human skin tissue
We dissolved C60 in squalane at near-saturated or higher concentrations (220-500 ppm).
Cell viability was almost equal to that of the control regardless of the UVA- or sham-irradiation, indicating no phototoxicity.
Reverse mutation by LF-SQ was examined on four histidine-demanding strains of Salmonella typhimurium and a tryptophan-demanding strain of Escherichia coli. The dose-dependency of the number of reverse mutation colonies of each strain did not show a marked difference when compared with the negative control.
LF-SQ can permeate into the epidermis via the corneum but can not penetrate the basement membrane, and so can not reach into the dermis, suggesting no necessity for considering a toxicity of C60 due to systemic circulation via dermal veins.
Skin Biology and Structure review.
Biological safety of liposome-fullerene consisting of hydrogenated lecithin, glycine soja sterols, and fullerene-C60 upon photocytotoxicity and bacterial reverse mutagenicity
Liposome-fullerene (0.2% aqueous phase, Lpsm-Flln) which was composed of hydrogenated lecithin, glycine soja (soybean) sterols, and C60.
Resultant cell viability (% of control) did not decrease dose-dependently to 50% or less regardless of the UVA-irradiation.
Bacterial reverse mutagenicity of Lpsm-Flln or Lpsm was judged to be negative under the conditions of this test.
Clinical evaluation of fullerene-C60 dissolved in squalane for anti-wrinkle cosmetics
C60 was dissolved, at nearly saturated concentration of 278 ppm, in squalane prepared from olive oil.
Examined for usage as a cosmetic ingredient with antioxidant ability. LF-SQ cream enhanced the skin moisture and the anti-wrinkle formation. Roughness-area ratio showed significant improvement (p < 0.05) at 8th week with LF-SQ cream as compared to 0 week with LF-SQ cream.
Fullerene-C60/liposome complex: Defensive effects against UVA-induced damages in skin structure, nucleus and collagen type I/IV fibrils, and the permeability into human skin tissue
(C60) incorporated in liposome consisting of hydrogenated lecithin and glycine soja sterol.
Lpsm-Flln was administered on the surface of three-dimensional human skin tissue model.
Breakdown of collagen type I/IV, DNA strand cleavage and pycnosis/karyorrhexis were observed in vertical cross-sections of UVA-irradiated skin. Skin damages were scarcely repressed by liposome alone, but appreciably repressed by Lpsm-Flln.
Impacts of fullerene C60 and virgin olive oil on cadmium-induced genotoxicity in rats
Genotoxic and anti-genotoxic effects of C60 and VOO were evaluated in the liver, kidney and bone marrow.
C60 and VOO exhibit anti-genotoxic agents against CdCl2-induced genotoxicity in rats.
Protective Effects of Fullerene C60 Nanoparticles and Virgin Olive Oil against Genotoxicity Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Rats
The potential effects of the fullerene C60 nanoparticle (C60) as well as virgin olive oil (VOO) against the cyclophosphamide- (CP-) induced cytotoxicity.
Fullerene C60 and VOO have protective effects against the CP-induced mutagenicity and genotoxicity.
Sub-acute oral toxicity study with fullerene C60 in rats
Rats were administered fullerene C60 by gavage once daily at 0 (vehicle: corn oil), 1, 10, 100, or 1,000 mg/kg/day for 29 days.
Blackish feces and black contents of the stomach and large intestine were observed in males and females at 1,000 mg/kg/day in the treatment group. There were no changes from controls in the liver and spleen weights at the end of the administration period. C60 were not detected in the liver, spleen or kidney at the end of the administration period.
The prolongation of the lifespan of rats by repeated oral administration of 60 fullerene
This is the 'somewhat famous' rat toxicity study where the rat life spans were almost doubled.